Laser Crystals

NdYAG crystal is the most mature and widely used solid-state laser material adopted by R&D, medical, industrial and military customers. Its properties are a good compromise between the strengths and weaknesses of its competition. Nd:YAG crystals are used in all types of solid-state lasers systems, e.g. frequency-doubled ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 2-15 mm
Crystal Length: 0.1-200 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Data Sheet
The Voyawave Optics Nd:YAG Crystal is a high-quality laser host crystal with exceptional optical properties. With high gain, low threshold, and excellent thermal conductivity, this crystal delivers outstanding performance in a variety of laser applications. Its versatile operation modes, including continuous wave (CW), pulsed, ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 3 mm
Crystal Length: 50 mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Length Tolerance: ± 0.5 mm
...
Data Sheet
The Voyawave Optics Ti:Sapphire Crystal is a highly versatile laser crystal known for its wide wavelength tunability and exceptional performance. With features such as absorption pump bandwidth, short excited state lifetime, and excellent thermal conductivity, this crystal delivers high damage threshold and superior output ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Ti:Sapphire
Crystal Diameter: 3 mm
Crystal Length: 5 mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Directional: C-axis is the direction of the optical axis, perpendicular to the crystal surface
...
Data Sheet
The Voyawave Optics TeO2 Crystal is a high-quality acousto-optic material with exceptional properties. With wide wavelength tunability and a short excited state lifetime, this crystal enables advanced applications in various fields. It offers high damage threshold, excellent output efficiency, and remarkable thermal conductivity. ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: TeO2
Crystal Diameter: -- mm
Crystal Length: -- mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Density: 6 g/cm3
...
Data Sheet
The Nd:KGW Laser Crystal is a highly doped laser crystal known for its exceptional performance and versatility. With its high doping concentration and wide absorption band, this crystal ensures efficient and reliable laser operation. It features a high excitation cross-section and a low laser output threshold, making it ideal for ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:KGW
Crystal Diameter: 3 mm
Crystal Length: 3 mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Length Tolerance: +1.0/-0.0
...
Data Sheet
The Er:YAG laser crystal, provided by VoyaWave Optics Ltd., is an advanced and highly efficient solution for medical and dental applications. The crystal lasers at a specific wavelength of 2940 nm, which coincides with the hydroxyl absorption peak, making it perfect for interaction with biological tissues. With exceptional optical ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 3-4 mm
Crystal Length: 53/65 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Size Tolerance: Diameter: +0.000 inches
...
Data Sheet
Nd:YVO4 is a laser crystal widely used in solid-state lasers due to its excellent properties, such as high absorption, high gain, and low threshold. It is a neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal, which exhibits a large stimulated emission cross-section and broad absorption bandwidth. Nd:YVO4 crystal has high efficiency, low ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YVO4
Crystal Diameter: 2.5 mm
Crystal Length: 2.5 mm
AR Coating: One side
Size Tolerance: (W ± 0.1 mm)x(H ± 0.1 mm)x(L + 0.2/-0.1 mm)(L< 2.5 mm) (W ± 0.1 mm)x(H ± 0.1 mm)x(L + 0.5/-0.1 mm)(L≥ 2.5 mm)
...
Data Sheet
Nd:YLF crystal is very suitable for mode-locked mode to obtain short pulse laser crystals. It has the characteristics of small thermal lens effect, large fluorescent linewidth and output polarization. Nd:YLF can be used in linearly polarized resonators, mode-locked lasers, diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers and Ti: sapphire chirped pulse ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YLF
Crystal Diameter: 3-5 mm
Crystal Length: 10-50 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Size Tolerance: +0/-0.1 mm
...
Data Sheet
The VoyaWave Optics Yb:KGW Crystal is an exceptional laser gain material with superior features. With a greater absorption bandwidth, longer launch life, higher storage capacity, and lower quantum defects, this crystal is perfect for various laser applications. It is highly suitable for diode pumping and offers high light ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Yb:KGW
Crystal Diameter: -- mm
Crystal Length: -- mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Length Tolerance: +1.0/-0.0
...
Data Sheet
The Nd:Ce:YAG Laser Rod is a superior laser medium designed to enhance beam quality, increase damage threshold, reduce thermal effects, and improve the overall efficiency and output stability of lasers. With its excellent thermal stability, resistance to ultraviolet radiation, and high optical quality, this laser rod significantly ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:Ce:YAG
Crystal Diameter: -- mm
Crystal Length: -- mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Size Tolerance: Diameter: +0.000"/- 0.002", Length: ± 0.02"
...
Data Sheet
The Nd:GdVO4 Laser Crystal is a high-quality laser host crystal designed for diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers. It exhibits excellent physical, optical, and mechanical properties, making it an ideal choice for various laser applications. With its large, stimulated emission cross section at laser wavelength, high absorption ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YVO4
Crystal Diameter: -- mm
Crystal Length: -- mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Size Tolerance: (W ± 0.1 mm) x (H ± 0.1 mm) x (L + 0.2/-0.1 mm)
...
Data Sheet
Yb:YAG crystal is a promising solid state laser working material, which is more suitable for diode pumping with traditional Nd doped crystal medium. Compared with Nd:YAG crystals, Yb:YAG crystals have wider absorption bandwidth, lower thermal control requirements in semiconductor laser design, longer laser upper level lifetime, and ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Yb:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 5 mm
Crystal Length: 1-3 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Laser Wavelength: 1030 nm
...
Data Sheet
This Non-Fluorescent (Raman) Calcium Fluoride is a high-quality optical material designed for use in applications where fluorescence is a concern, such as in the analysis of biological samples or in materials science. Fluorescence can cause signal distortion, energy loss or imaging disturbances, and this material is non-fluorescent ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: CaF2
Crystal Diameter: -- mm
Crystal Length: -- mm
AR Coating: Uncoated
Crystal Structure: Cubic
...
Data Sheet
Nd: YAG crystal is one of the mature laser crystals obtained by doping Nd ions into YAG crystals. The absorption bandwidth of Nd: YAG laser crystal is 730-760nm and 790-820nm respectively. It is usually pumped by flash lamp or semiconductor laser. The typical laser emission peak is 1064nm. 946nm, 1120nm, 1320nm and 1440nm lasers ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 3~12.7 mm
Crystal Length: 3~150 mm
AR Coating: One side, Both sides, Uncoated
Nd Concentration Tolerance: 0.1- 2.5(+/-0.1)atm%
...
Data Sheet
Nd:YVO4 crystal is one of the most efficient laser host crystal currently existing for diode laser pumped solid state lasers. Its large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength, high absorption coefficient and wide absorption bandwidth at pump wavelength, high laser induced damage threshold as well as good physical, ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:Ce:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 3 mm
Crystal Length: 3 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Data Sheet
Titanium Doped Sapphire Crystal (Ti:Sapphire, Ti:Al2O3), is the most widely used laser crystal for widely tunable and ultrashort pulsed lasers with high gain and high power outputs.

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Yb:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 3 mm
Crystal Length: 3 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Data Sheet
Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers. The dopant, triply ionized neodymium, typically replaces yttrium in the crystal structure of the yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), since they are of similar size. Generally the crystalline host is doped ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 5 mm
Crystal Length: 85 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Data Sheet
Lasers powered by Er:YAG (erbium substituted: yttrium aluminium garnet), operating at 2.94 microns, crystals couple well into water and body fluids. The output of Er:YAG laser rod working as active element in special devices enables the painless monitoring of blood sugar levels for diabetic people, while safely reducing the risk for ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 2-50 mm
Crystal Length: 5-180 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Chemical Formula, Crystal: Activator: Y3Al5O12:Er3+
...
Data Sheet
Titanium doped sapphire(Ti3+:Al2O3) is widely used for tunable lasers and femtosecond solid-state lasers. It was first used as a gain medium in 1986, and till now, it is still the best material for ultrashort pulse generation. The substrate-sapphire has good physical and optical properties. High thermal conductivity and good ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Ti:Sapphire
Crystal Diameter: 1-157 mm
Crystal Length: 1-27 mm
AR Coating: Uncoated
Chemical Formula, Crystal: Activator: Ti:Al2O3:Ti3+
...
Data Sheet
Nd: YVO4 crystal is an excellent laser crystal for making diode pumped solid lasers. The main and greatest advantages of Nd: YVO4 are high absorption coefficient, big stimulated emission cross-section and wide absorption band, the absorption peak is about 808 nm.  Because of these advantages, small crystal can be used to ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YVO4
Crystal Diameter: 1-50 mm
Crystal Length: 0.3-220 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Chemical Formula, Crystal: Activator: YVO4: Nd3+
...
Data Sheet
The erbium doped concentration of the LD pumped laser glass is 0.25~1.3, and the light output energy ranges from microjoule to millijoule.   Er, Yb co-doped phosphate glass, with wider wavelength tuning, lower RIN and narrower laser linewidth, higher conversion efficiency and very wide pump band. It is used to make ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er Glass
Crystal Diameter: 3-12.7 mm
Crystal Length: 140 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Wavelength: 1535 nm
...
Data Sheet
Er, Cr,Yb phosphate glass is the raw material for making  the  solid gain medium crystal for flash lamp pumped lasers, the erbium-doped concentration is 0.13~0.25×1020cm-3, and the light output energy is from millijoule to joule level.  Erbium Glass doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Cr3+, Erbium doped glass laser provides ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er Glass
Crystal Diameter: 3-12.7 mm
Crystal Length: 3-150 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Wavelength: 1535 nm
...
Data Sheet
Nd: YAG crystal material is widely used in industrial, medical, military and scientific research fields. Nd: YAG continues being as the best of the rare earth garnet materials that are characterized by four-level laser operation which permits low threshold pulse and CW operation. Nd:YAG application solutions including pump diode, ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Nd:YAG
Crystal Diameter: 1-50 mm
Crystal Length: 0.3-220 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Chemical Formula,Crystal:Activator: Y3Al5O12 :Nd3+
...
Data Sheet
Er:Yb:Phosphate glass is an ideal material for eye-safe laser application because of 1535nm emission, it can be fabricated as optical fiber core for special applications.

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er Glass
Crystal Diameter: 2-4 mm
Crystal Length: 50-150 mm
AR Coating: Uncoated
Host: Phosphate glass
...
Data Sheet
There are two typical types of Er:Glass lasers, one is using laser rod as working medium, another is using bonded Er:Glass to get gain medium, Q-switch and output coupler as a whole, which present advantages of easy fixing and stable construction.  There are three types of Er:Glass modules available specified as: 0-10Hz ...

Specifications

Type Of Crystal: Er Glass
Crystal Diameter: 3-12.7 mm
Crystal Length: 3-150 mm
AR Coating: Both sides
Gain Media: Er3+, Yb3+:Phosphate glass
...
Data Sheet

Frequently Asked Questions

Laser crystals are solid-state materials that have been doped with ions to make them capable of amplifying light through stimulated emission of radiation. They are used as a gain medium in lasers to convert electrical or optical pump energy into a coherent beam of light.

Laser crystals work by absorbing energy from an external source, called a pump source, and storing it within their atomic or molecular structure. When this stored energy is released, it stimulates the emission of photons, which are amplified and emitted as a coherent beam of light.

Common materials for laser crystals include synthetic ruby (aluminum oxide doped with chromium), Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), Yb:YAG (ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), Ti:Sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire), and Nd:Glass (neodymium-doped glass).

Laser crystals have a wide range of applications in laser technologies including those used for industrial machining, welding, and cutting; medical applications such as eye surgery and dentistry; telecommunications; scientific research in spectroscopy and photonics; military applications; and consumer electronics.

When choosing a laser crystal, consider factors such as the wavelength of the emitted light, the required output power, the thermal conductivity of the crystal, the efficiency of the crystal in converting pump energy to laser light, and the physical and chemical properties of the material.

Laser crystals are typically manufactured through processes such as the Czochralski process, where a seed crystal is dipped into a melt of the base material and slowly pulled up, allowing the crystal to grow. Doping is done by adding specific ions to the melt to achieve desired properties.

The performance of a laser crystal can be optimized through proper selection of the dopant, optimizing the doping concentration, effective cooling to manage heat generation, using high-quality coatings for the crystal surfaces, and selecting an appropriate pump source for energy input.

Thermal management is crucial in laser crystals because the pumping process generates heat, which can cause thermal lensing and degrade beam quality. Efficient thermal management ensures that the crystal does not overheat, which helps maintain high performance and prolongs the crystal's life.

Doping introduces specific ions into the crystal lattice, which alter the crystal's optical properties. This allows the crystal to absorb energy at certain wavelengths and emit it at others. The choice and concentration of dopant can affect the efficiency, output wavelength, and power.

As of my last update in September 2021, advancements in laser crystal technology include the development of new dopants and host materials for higher efficiency and power, advances in crystal growth techniques for improved quality, and innovations in thermal management solutions.

Laser Crystals: The Heart of Solid-State Lasers

Laser crystals are an essential component in the realm of photonics and optical technologies. They are the active gain medium used in solid-state lasers to amplify light through stimulated emission of radiation. In this comprehensive article, we will delve into the intricate world of laser crystals, touching upon their working principle, types, applications, and recent advancements.

Introduction to Laser Crystals

Laser crystals belong to a category of solid-state lasers where the active medium that produces laser action is a crystal. Unlike gas or liquid lasers, these crystals have the atoms or ions arranged in a solid lattice structure. These ions are responsible for the optical properties necessary for lasing action. They can amplify the intensity of light, producing highly coherent, focused beams which are used across various applications.

Fundamental Working Principle

Energy Levels and Population Inversion: To understand how laser crystals work, it is imperative to comprehend the atomic structure and energy levels. Atoms possess discrete energy levels, and when external energy is applied, electrons move to a higher energy state. When they return to their ground state, energy is released in the form of photons.

Laser action requires a phenomenon called ‘population inversion’ where more electrons are in the higher energy state compared to the ground state. This leads to the emission of a large number of photons, and hence, intense light.

Optical Pumping and Stimulated Emission: Laser crystals are subjected to a process called 'optical pumping,' where they are exposed to an external light source. This energy excites the atoms within the crystal. When these atoms return to their lower energy state, they emit photons. These photons, in turn, stimulate other excited atoms to emit more photons with the same phase, direction, and energy. This process is called stimulated emission, and it results in the amplification of light.

Types of Laser Crystals

Nd:YAG Crystals: One of the most widely used laser crystals is Nd:YAG, where neodymium ions are doped into a yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Nd:YAG lasers are known for their high power and efficiency. They are used extensively in industries for cutting, welding, and marking.

Ti:Sapphire Crystals: Ti:Sapphire crystals are doped with titanium ions. They are known for having a broad emission bandwidth, making them ideal for ultrafast pulsed lasers. These lasers are typically used in spectroscopy, microscopy, and industrial machining with ultra-high precision.

Other Notable Laser Crystals: Other laser crystals include Yb:YAG, where ytterbium replaces neodymium, offering better thermal properties, and Ruby lasers, which use a synthetic ruby crystal (aluminum oxide doped with chromium).

Applications of Laser Crystals

Industrial Applications: In industries, laser crystals are used for cutting, drilling, welding, and marking materials with high precision. Nd:YAG lasers are often used due to their high power and efficiency.

Medical Applications: Laser crystals play a vital role in medical procedures such as laser eye surgery, dental procedures, and even cancer treatment. The precision of solid-state lasers is crucial in medical applications.

Scientific Research: In scientific research, laser crystals are used for spectroscopy, studying molecular structures, and interactions. Ti:Sapphire lasers are particularly useful here due to their broad emission spectrum.

Telecommunications: Solid-state lasers are used in telecommunications for optical signal amplification. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) are a common example.

Recent Advancements in Laser Crystal Technology

With the advancing field of photonics, there are constant developments in laser crystal technology. One such development is the creation of new dopants and host materials that can produce higher output powers and efficiencies.

Additionally, innovations in crystal growth techniques have allowed for the production of higher quality crystals. Enhanced thermal management solutions are being developed to better handle the heat generated during the lasing process, leading to more stable and efficient laser systems.

Moreover, with the advent of the quantum revolution, laser crystals are also finding applications in quantum technologies, where they are used to create entangled photons and implement quantum communication protocols.

Conclusion

Laser crystals are undeniably a cornerstone in the field of lasers and photonics. From Nd:YAG to Ti:Sapphire, the variety of laser crystals cater to a plethora of applications across industries, medicine, scientific research, and telecommunications. As technology advances, we can only expect to witness further innovations and applications of these remarkable crystals. Understanding their working principles, types, and applications helps in appreciating the invaluable role they play in modern science and technology.

Did You know?

Laser Crystals are the linchpin of solid-state lasers, where they serve as the active gain medium, or lasing medium. They play a crucial role in generating a laser’s output by utilizing various optical pumping techniques. Some prominent examples of laser media based on crystals include rare-earth ion-doped crystals, such as Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet), and transition metal ion-doped crystals, like Ti:Sapphire (Titanium-doped Sapphire). Nd:YAG crystals are particularly notable for their high damage threshold and efficiency, making them the ideal choice for applications requiring high peak powers, such as pulsed nanosecond lasers with Q-switching. On the other hand, Ti:Sapphire crystals are renowned for their large emission bandwidth and are, therefore, best suited for ultrafast lasers and amplifiers, often used in femtosecond pulse generation and amplified laser systems. The judicious selection and optimization of laser crystals are imperative for achieving the desired performance characteristics in solid-state lasers, which have a broad spectrum of applications encompassing industrial machining, telecommunications, medical procedures, and scientific research.