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Ultrafast lasers are a type of laser that emits light pulses with extremely short durations, typically on the order of femtoseconds or picoseconds. These lasers are capable of producing high peak powers and high pulse energies, making them well-suited for a wide range of applications such as micromachining, material processing, and scientific research. The limits of pulse duration, peak power, and energy are key factors that determine the performance of ultrafast lasers. The shortest achievable pulse duration is limited by the gain bandwidth of the laser medium and the pulse shaping techniques used. For example, titanium-sapphire (Ti:sapphire) lasers can produce pulses as short as a few femtoseconds, while fiber lasers typically produce pulses in the picosecond range. The peak power of an ultrafast laser is proportional to the pulse energy and inversely proportional to the pulse duration. Therefore, shorter pulse durations result in higher peak powers. The peak power of an ultrafast laser can range from a few watts to several gigawatts depending on the pulse duration and energy. The pulse energy of an ultrafast laser is determined by the gain and loss of the laser cavity and the repetition rate of the laser pulses. The pulse energy can range from a few nanojoules to several millijoules. Higher pulse energies are typically required for applications such as micromachining and material processing.