Charged Particle Sources
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An integrating sphere is an optical component consisting of a hollow spherical cavity with its interior covered with a diffuse white reflective coating, with small holes for entrance and exit ports. Light rays incident on any point within the internal sphere are distributed equally to all other points. Thus, the effects of the original direction of light are minimized. In other words, an integrating sphere is a diffuser that preserves power, but destroys spatial information. Integrating spheres are used for a variety of optical, photometric, or radiometric measurements. Additionally, these instruments cam be used to measure the output of high power lasers and laser diodes to measure the reflectance and transmittance of various materials.