Charged Particle Sources
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X-Ray microscopes use soft x-rays to produce images of very small objects. They have a typical resolution of ~10um – much higher than conventional optical microscopes – thus offering new routes to address a variety of static and dynamic problems in different branches of modern material science. For example, because of their high-resolution they allow in-vivo examination of biological samples. Additionally, the ability of X-rays to produce fluorescence offers a side-advantage of conducting optical spectroscopy on the examined sample. While, the earliest X-Ray microscopes of mid-20th century used grazing incidence angles, the newest soft x-ray microscopes (such as the one at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) use an incidence configuration similar to conventional microscopes.